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Mastering the Data Science Workflow

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Confidently navigate your data science projects with these 6 simple stages!


In today’s data-driven world, we must navigate a vast sea of information to extract valuable insights. In order to guide us safely through these challenging waters, we require a reliable compass: the data science workflow.

What is the data science workflow?

The data science workflow is a structured framework of stages that guides data scientists in effectively navigating the complexities of data science projects.


1) Definition
2) Collection
3) Preparation
4) Exploration
5) Analysis
6) Communication


The data science workflow empowers data scientists to collaborate efficiently and effectively when extracting value from data.


The data science workflow is inherently iterative, so it is crucial to recognise the need to revisit earlier stages when new insights emerge.

Alternative Frameworks

There is no one-size-fits-all data science workflow, accordingly this article offers a personalised take, drawing inspiration from widely recognised frameworks like CRISP-DM and OSEMN.

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1) Definition

The definition stage involves clearly outlining the project in order to ensure that efforts, expectations, and resources are aligned with a shared purpose and direction.


Gather contextual information related to the project (e.g. causes, goals, issues, expectations, implications)

Define desired outcomes, measurable goals, and key questions before breaking tasks into distinct, manageable components

Determine the limitations of the project by considering important factors (e.g. resource availability, time constraints, data accessibility, ethical considerations)

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2) Collection

The collection stage involves acquiring the necessary data in order to perform a meaningful analysis based upon accurate information.


Data Requirements
Define which data is needed to properly approach the project (e.g. format, variables, time range, granularity)

Data Sources
Find reliable and relevant data sources (e.g. databases, APIs, files, sensor readings)

Secure necessary permissions to access the data (e.g. email/password, OAuth, API key, robots.txt)

Acquire the data using appropriate methods (e.g. SQL queries, API calls, web scraping, manual data entry)

Data Management
Handle the data in accordance with best practices (e.g. data quality, data governance, data security)

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3) Preparation

The preparation stage involves processing the raw data in order to achieve a consistent and structured format that is well-suited for a reliable analysis.


Data Cleaning
Identify and handle errors and inconsistencies in the data (e.g. missing values, duplicate entries, anomalies, data formats)

Data Integration
Combine data from multiple sources whilst ensuring consistency (e.g. variables, naming conventions, indexing)

Feature Engineering
Engineer meaningful features from raw data (e.g. feature selection, feature creation, data transformation)

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4) Exploration

The exploration stage involves understanding the main characteristics of the data in order to formulate valid hypotheses, identify issues, and refine the project definition.


Distribution Analysis
Examine the distribution of each variable (e.g. mean, median, standard deviation, skew, outliers)

Dependency Analysis
Investigate and quantify variable relationships to understand how they influence each other (e.g. correlations, interactions, covariances, time series analysis)

Data Segmentation
Explore the data using various segments and subsets to understand how patterns vary across different groups

Hypothesis Generation
Generate initial insights to develop hypotheses about relationships and patterns

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5) Analysis

The analysis stage involves performing an in-depth examination of the data in order to develop a robust solution that is capable of producing valuable insights.


Hypothesis Testing
Apply significance tests to assess the statistical importance of observed patterns and relationships (e.g. t-test, ANOVA, chi-squared test)

Advanced Techniques
Utilise advanced algorithms relevant to specific hypotheses (e.g. time series analysis, regression analysis, anomaly detection)

Select, build, and assess suitable models with relevant metrics to identify the optimal configuration whilst considering trade-offs such as complexity, interpretability, and performance

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6) Communication

The communication stage involves presenting the project and its findings to stakeholders in order to create clarity and awareness.


Model Deployment
Deploy the model for real-world use (e.g. create an API, build a web application, integrate into an existing system)

Monitoring and Logging
Implement performance tracking and issue logging for the model during usage

Create comprehensive project documentation covering technical details (e.g. model architecture, data sources, assumptions, limitations)

Reporting and Presentation
Produce and deliver concise, informative, and engaging project summaries (e.g. objectives, methods, results, insights, key findings)

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The data science workflow is an essential tool because it provides structure and organisation to complex projects, resulting in improved decision-making, enhanced collaboration, and greater accuracy.

Data science is a dynamic field, and whilst the workflow provides a solid foundation, it should be adapted to fit specific project needs and goals.

Embracing and applying the data science workflow will empower data scientists to streamline their process and thrive in the ever-changing, ever-growing sea of data.


[1] J. Saltz, What is a Data Science Workflow? (2022), The Data Science Process Alliance
[2] P. Guo, Data Science Workflow: Overview and Challenges (2013), Communications of the ACM
[3] Springboard, The Data Science Process (2016), KDNuggets
[4] S. Gupta, Data Science Process: A Beginner’s Guide in Plain English (2022), Springboard
[5] M. Tabladillo, The Team Data Science Process Lifecycle (2022), Microsoft
[6] D. Cielen, A. Meysman, M. Ali, Introducing Data Science — Chapter 2: The Data Science Process (2016), Manning Publications
[7] Z. Awofeso, A Beginner’s Guide to Structuring Data Science Project’s Workflow (2023), Analytics Vidhya
[8] N. Hotz, What is CRISP-DM? (2023), The Data Science Process Alliance
[9] J. Brownlee, How To Work Through A Problem Like A Data Scientist (2014), Machine Learning Mastery

Mastering the Data Science Workflow was originally published in Towards Data Science on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.

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